Mount and fstab on Linux | Drupal 8

Mount and fstab on Linux

Submitted by editor on Wed, 07/13/2016 - 13:49
Question

How to mount disks using mount and/or fstab file ?

Mount & Umount

Mount is use to mount and unmount a disk temporally / or for the current session on Linux.

Syntax:
mount –t [Type] –o [Options] [Device/Source] [Mount Point]
Example: Mount the partition sdb2 on /media/mydata
sudo mount /dev/sdb2 /media/mydata
sudo mount -o defaults,rw /dev/sdb2 /media/mydata (read write rights)
sudo umount /dev/sdb2

See options table for options

 

“fstab” file

The Fstab file is use to mount partitions automatically at the system boot. Here you can found the root, swap …

Syntax:
[Device/Source]    [Mount Point]     [File System Type]     [Options]     [Dump]     [Pass]

 

Device/Source: The source can be

  • UUID of the partition
  • Device (/dev/sdb1)
  • A folder (/home/you/the_www_folder)

Mount Point: Is the destination

  • / (root)
  • none (Ex: for the swap)
  • /var/www (To override an existing folder)

File System Type: Examples:

  • auto, bind
  • ext2, ext3, ext4, swap
  • (Fat16), vfat (Fat32), ntfs (ntfs-3g)
  • reiserfs, btrfs, tmpfs, udf, iso9660, hfs
  • cifs, nfs, fuse (Remote partitions)

Options :

  • defaults = rw, suid, dev, exec, auto, nouser, async
  • Please see the options table

Dump: to use with the backup utility ‘dump’ (0 or 1)

  • 0 = no backup
  • 1 = file system is backed up

Pass: is the fsdisk order (0, 1 or 2)

  • 0 == do not check (swap, windows …)
  • 1 == check this partition first (High priority, Ex: root /)
  • 2 == check this partition(s) next (Low priority, other partitions)

 

NTFS Mount error

If you are unable to mount Windows (NTFS) filesystem after hibernation or powerdown ..., you can try:
sudo ntfsfix /dev/sdXY

 

Mostly used options:

Options Description Compatibility
defaults Equal to rw,suid,dev,exec,auto,nouser,async All
rw/ro Read/write or Read Only All
suid/nosuid The SUID and SGID bits , the rights given to the executables on this partition All
dev/nodev Device or not a device All
exec/noexec Allow program execution All
auto/noauto Auto mount when calling 'mount -a' All
nouser can use by the root user only (user = root) All
_netdev Need network configuration before mount ??
async mount asynchrone (par défaut) All
atime/noatime write access time (Set noatime for the SSD) Norme POSIX
sw swap partitions swap
discard active the TRIM on SSD partitions (To add manually) ext4, btrfs (SSD)

Other options

Options Description Compatibility
user Allow current user to mount / unmount the file system. This leads to the use of options noexec, nosuid, and nodev (unless exec, dev, suid are specified) All
sync Synchronous mount (not recommended) ext2-3, fat, vfat, ufs
uid=

Specifies the ID of the owner of the files for non-Linux file systems (where it is not specified). You can find it in your "/etc/passwd".

  • If not specified: root
  • If uid and gid specified without number, current user.
non-Linux
gid=

Same for the owners groups (Group IDs are in /etc/group)

non-Linux
umask= Specifies the permissions (access rights) on the partition, like uid and gid. non-Linux (fat)
dir_mode= Specifies  usage rights for the folders (with : umask) non-Linux
dmask= Specifies  usage rights for the folders (with : umask) non-Linux (fat)
file_mode= Specifies  usage rights for the files (with : umask) non-Linux
fmask= Specifies  usage rights for the files (with : umask) non-Linux (fat)
utf8 Convert file name encoding from unicode 16 bits to utf8 ISO9660 (Images CD/DVD), Ntfs, Fat32
windows_names

Prevents the use of non-compatible characters with Windows in filenames (/ \ : ? * < > "  |)

fat, ntfs

 

Links :
https://doc.ubuntu-fr.org/mount_fstab
https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Fstab

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